The authors find that firms that commit environmental violations switch to producing green patents in the long-run. The authors also document that market reaction following environmental offenses is negative for firms with a high ratio of green patents in their portfolio.

In this study, we use a hand-collected dataset of employee lawsuits to understand the effect of employee litigation on firms’ innovation output. We gather more than 2,293 employee disputes between 2000 and 2015 and test the relationship between employee lawsuits and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) product approvals in the pharmaceutical industry. We find that employee disputes lower the total number of FDA-approved products. We document that firms with frequent employee allegations maintain low innovation outcomes. Additional results show that case characteristics are an important determinant of FDA approvals. For example, the involvement of labor unions and case duration delay time-to-approval of submitted products may explain the deteriorated innovation outcomes. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of employee treatment in the workplace environment, which is ultimately related to firms’ innovation performance.

In this article, we investigate how institutional investors help mitigate business-related risks in a corporate environment. Using a large sample of employment disputes, litigations, and court cases, we find that institutional investors play a significant role in reducing employment litigation.

The authors study the relationship between CEO overconfidence and litigation risk by examining employee-level lawsuit data. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the executive characteristics that potentially affect the likelihood of employee litigations. The paper makes three main contributions. First, it provides the first large-sample evidence on CEO overconfidence and labor relations. The authors employ data on firm-level labor litigation that contains both the case reason and case outcome. Second, this paper adds to the growing literature of CEO overconfidence and governance practices in the workplace. Finally, the study highlights the importance of employee treatment and explores the impact of labor lawsuits on firm value.

In this study, we investigate financial technology firms and innovation.

In this study, we use a unique hand‐collected data set of employee lawsuits to understand the effect of litigation on CEO turnover. We gather 28,258 employee disputes (after initial court hearing) dating between the years 2000 and 2014 to test the relationship between executive turnover following employee allegations. We find increased turnover of CEOs following labor lawsuits. Additional analysis suggests that, following the lawsuits, CEO compensation decreases and becomes more sensitive to cash holding. Our results show that employee lawsuits have an impact on CEO turnover, regardless of the case outcome or motivation. Overall, we document the importance of employee treatment in the workplace. We conclude employee treatment may impact both the tenure and future job prospects of a CEO.

The paper uses a unique, hand-collected data set of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved products to understand the effect of lobbying on the product market. The authors gather total 86,462 FDA labels including drug patents, drugs, pre-market approvals and medical devices and test the relationship between lobbying and future firms’ product submissions.

In this research paper, we investigate if institutional investors influence corporate innovation in the US pharmaceutical industry. We hand collect unique datasets from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including drug patents, drug approvals, medical device approvals, and Phase I-II-III drugs under clinical testing. We find that higher institutional ownership has a positive, causal effect on firm innovation. We document that institutional ownership increases the number of FDA approved products.

This study investigates if antitakeover provisions are a value-enhancing indicator of corporate governance by estimating the effect of takeover susceptibility to labor litigations.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether investors perceive the issuance of sukuk differently than they do in case of conventional bonds.

The general consensus on the status of Islamic bank regulation in previous research literature has indicated that there are several improvements that need to be made in order for Islamic bank regulation to become effective. This paper examines a survey administered to Islamic finance stakeholders from 41 countries on the current status of Islamic bank regulation in their respective jurisdictions. We hypothesize that the current status of Islamic bank regulation is considered to be in its development stage and that further improvement and development is required for Islamic banking to foster growth in the Islamic banking industry. The results from this survey bring insight as to what improvements should be undertaken to further develop Islamic bank regulation in OIC member countries.

This paper investigates the factors that affect credit risk using survival analysis by employing two primary models – the AFT model and the Cox proportional hazard (PH) model. While several studies employ the Cox PH model, few use the AFT model. However, this paper concludes that the AFT model has superior predictive qualities.